The new formula useful calculating the newest SE is actually the following: SE = (sphere) + (cylinder)/dos

The new formula useful calculating the newest SE is actually the following: SE = (sphere) + (cylinder)/dos

The procedure observed having an optometric examination where artwork tests was basically did towards all the members determine their visual acuity, one another with and you may in the place of modification, carrying out refraction, and you may determining binocular attention and you can accommodation.

Understanding the Parameters

To determine the children’s optical prescription, the spherical equivalent (SE) was calculated and the participants were classified according to their SE into hypermetropic, those whose SE was greater than +0.50 diopters; myopic, those whose SE was < -0.50 Diopters or emmetropic, those whose SE was between?0.50 and +0.50, Diopters (34).

The Clinical Myopia Profile classification was used to calculate the number of hours children spent outdoors, performing near-vision activities, using electronic devices and the influence of their family history (35). According to Gifford, the time the children that spend outdoors during the day (exposure to sunlight) can be classified as low (if they spend between 0 and 1.6 h a day), moderate (if they spend between 1.6 and 2.7 h a day) or high (if they spend more than 2.7 h a day). Concerning near-vision time (excluding school hours), it can be classified as high (more than 3 h a day), moderate (2–3 h a day), or low (0-2 h a day). Within this time interval, the percentage of time spent using digital devices was determined as: <25%, between 25 and 50%, and >50%. With regards to genetics, the questionnaire asked whether either parent or both parents were short-sighted.

Mathematical Analysis

Analytical study was used with the SPSS twenty-five.0 app (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois). The fresh detailed research from quantitative details try did using the suggest, fundamental departure, rely on period and you may possibility ratio. The new qualitative details was reviewed with the delivery away from frequencies and you may proportions. Simply because they then followed a low-parametric shipping into Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the fresh Kruskal-Wallis try was used having research study. Incidence was computed having an excellent 95% count on interval basically, a cut-out-regarding area away from p ?0.05 is thought to gauge the analytical importance.


The analysis is presented inside the day from , coinciding with the start of school seasons. A total of 8,408 medical ideas from all around Spain was basically looked at (step three,991 into the 2016, dos,161 into the 2017, and you will 2,257 for the 2019). Of those records, 711 have been excluded as they did not meet the addition criteria (college students was in fact less than 5 years or higher seven yrs old), and you will 199 due to forgotten study. Altogether, 7,497 professionals was basically checked, of which 35.5% (letter = 2658) had been emmetropic, 46.6% (letter = 3493) had been hypermetropic and you will 18% (n = 1346) had been myopic. The fresh new proportions vary across the ages (Shape step one). An average age people was six.sixteen ± 0.78 years. When it comes to sex, cuatro,027 (53.7%) of one’s players have been men, and you will step three,471 (46.3%) was indeed people.

This new mean SE worthy of try 0.80 ± dos.03 Diopters (0.00 ± 0.15D within the emmetropia, dos.34 ± step 1.67D into the hypermetropy, and?step 1.64 ± step 1.54D from inside the myopia). With respect to ages, SE in the 5 years was 0.97 ± 2.fifteen Diopters, at 6 ages 0.83 ± dos.00 Diopters, at eight decades 0.66 ± 1.98 Diopters. Away from gender, mean SE viewpoints was 0.81 ± 2.10 Diopters in the male members and you will 0.78 ± step 1.95 Diopters inside the girls users.

The brand new incidence out of myopic in children aged 5-7 age has grown out-of sixteen.8% (letter = 594) within the 2016 to help you 19% (letter = 390) from inside the 2019 (OR: step one.step one4; CI: 1.09?step one.19; p ? 0.001). The new frequency of myopia increased more and more as we age (p ? 0.001) which have thirteen.9% (n = 247) in children old five years, 17.6% (letter = 469) in children old 6 decades and you will % (letter = 630) in children aged 7 age (OR: 6.28; CI: 6.2six-six.31; p ? 0.001). But not, no high association ranging from gender and myopia try recognized (p = 0.169).

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